Most Palestinian leaders have accepted the understanding that Palestine will be essentially an unarmed state, without any offensive weapons. Israel is by far the strongest military power in the region; it is one of the strongest military powers in the world. Israel's nuclear capacity includes at least 200 high-density nuclear bombs, as well as a nuclear bomb production facility in the Negev desert at Dimona. Israel is not a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and refuses to allow international inspection of its nuclear arsenal as the treaty would require. Israel's military includes not only the newest and most advanced U.S.-produced fighter-bombers, helicopter gunships, missile defense systems and more, but relies on its own domestic production capacity as well, one of the most advanced arms manufacturing systems in the world. Palestine simply does not represent any threat to the national security of Israel.
The issue of the personal safety of individual Israelis is different. During the years of Israel's occupation of Palestine, resistance to that occupation sometimes took illegal forms, including the attacks on civilians inside Israel. But the overwhelming majority of attacks on civilians, terrorist attacks, were in fact in response to Israel's occupation; with the end of occupation, the overwhelming majority of attacks will end. Certainly both Israel and Palestine will have an obligation to protect their own citizens from cross-border (or internal) terrorist attacks. When a fully independent and sovereign Palestinian state can develop normal relations with Israel, as opposed to the distorted relationship of occupied and occupier, it will be possible to cooperate on security issues as well.